appendix

Definitions of Hawaiian Terms and Definitions




Racial-Ethnic Identification

How one identifies one’s self is often an indicator of that individual’s social identification, cultural values, and political interests. Self-identification can serve as an index of the well-being of a people. The descendants of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands have been striving to identify and define themselves as a people, as a culture, and as a civilization. During this struggle they developed several terms to identify themselves, including: “Kanaka Maoli,” “Kanaka ‘Oīwi,” “Kanaka Hawai‘i,” and “Hawai‘i maoli.” While the struggle to reclaim their legacy and determine their destiny persists, Western government bureaucracy has developed multiple definitions of their own to identify the native people of the Hawaiian islands. The private and non-profit sectors have followed their example.



“Hawaiian?”

Who is “Hawaiian?” Who is “Native Hawaiian?” Who is “native Hawaiian?” How many are there? Where do they live? In what industries and occupations are they employed? How many are unemployed? How many are incarcerated? What is their family income? How many own homes? How are they doing in school? What are the major health issues they face? How many are born each day in Hawai‘i? What is their life expectancy? How many of their children live below the poverty level? These are simple questions with no simple answers. One of the principal issues is that there is no single definition of “Hawaiian.”

The 1990 Census conducted by the US Bureau of the Census reported 138,742 “Hawaiians” in the State of Hawai‘i. For the 1990 Census, the Census Bureau used a single category self-identification to determine race. During the same year a statewide survey conducted by the Hawai‘i State, Department of Health, estimated the “Hawaiian” population to number 205,079. That is a 66,000 difference in population counts. The Department of Health’s survey examined the ethnic background of the parents of each individual and based its racial designation on the racial composition of his/her parents. Consequently, a determination could be made for those of mixed race.

During the following 2000 Census, the US Bureau of the Census changed the race category of “Hawaiian” to “Native Hawaiian.” The change was not a change in definition, but rather a change in terminology made as a result of public input. The Bureau also modified the methodology used to collect race data. The Bureau’s question on race was revised to allow respondents the option to self-identify themselves by selecting one or more races to indicate their racial identities. Due to the change, data on race are presented using different tabulation options. One option provides data on “race alone,” those who reported a single race category. The other option reports those who report a single category and those who reported multiple categories, “alone or in any combination.” Due to the change, data on race from Census 2000 are not directly comparable with those from the 1990 census and previous censuses. For the 2000 Census, there were 80,137 reported as “Native Hawaiian alone,” and 239,655 reported as “Native Hawaiian alone or in any combination.” Those who identified themselves by a single race category does not indicate they are of a single race. Those who are classified as “Native Hawaiian alone,” does not indicate that they are “full-blooded Hawaiian” or are of “100% blood quantum,” any data should not be interpreted as such. The Hawai‘i State Department of Health reported a “Hawaiian” population estimated at 254,910 in 2000.

The recent 2010 Census is reporting 80,337 in the “Native Hawaiian alone” category, an increase of only 200 from the 2000 Census. However, in the “Native Hawaiian alone or in any combination” category the 2010 Census reports 289,970, an increase of 50,315.

Agencies, organizations, and institutions in Hawai‘i address the race question with a wide assortment of policies, methodologies and procedures. Caution must be used in comparing “Hawaiian” from one source to “Hawaiian” from another source.


“Native Hawaiian” versus “native Hawaiian”

The Office of Hawaiian Affairs and other agencies and organizations frequently use the terminology: “Native Hawaiian” and “native Hawaiian.”

   “Native Hawaiian:” Native Hawaiian with a upper case “N” refers to all persons of Hawaiian ancestry regardless of blood quantum.
   “native Hawaiian:” Native Hawaiian with a lower case “n” refers to those with 50% and more Hawaiian blood.

Different designations are utilized due to the different level of entitlements and benefits accorded by one’s blood quantum.


Definitions of “Hawaiian”

Hawai‘i State, Department of Education (DOE)
For students enrolled in the public school system, race is based on the student’s enrollment application which is completed by the parent/guardian of each student. The US Department of Education has recently instituted new guidelines regarding data on race for public school students. Race is indicated through a single-category self-identification check list. Applicants may check all that apply. If more than one race is selected, then for reporting purposes your child will be counted as “Two or more” unless the multiple categories selected are races of the same origin. The application also asks, “What is the student’s primary race?” If more than one race was selected, then primary means the race with which the child associates most. The check list includes the category “Native Hawaiian.”

Hawai‘i State, Department of Hawaiian Home Lands (DHHL)

Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, 1920
Title 2.--Hawaiian Homes Commission.
Sec. 201. (a) (7).
   The term “native Hawaiian” means any descendant of not less than one-half of the blood of the races inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands previous to 1778.

Beneficiaries of the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands are persons of at least 50 percent Hawaiian blood. The department determines and verifies native Hawaiian blood qualification through birth certificates and genealogical research.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Health (DOH). Aids Surveillance Program (ASP)
The Aids Surveillance Program uses two forms to determine the race of reported AIDS cases. The first form is the standard CDC HIV/AIDS Confidential Case Report. It includes five standard US Census race categories (including “Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander”) plus “Not Specified.” The second form is a locally developed break down of Asians and Pacific Islanders into 25 racial groups. The forms are filled out by health care professionals. The individual filling out the form gets the race information from the patient, the patient’s medical record, or from visual observation. “Hawaiian/Part-Hawaiian” is listed as a single-category.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Health (DOH). Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System (BRFSS)
The Behavioral Risk Factor Survey is a random-digit dialing telephone interview survey. The data on the race of a respondent is determined from answers to a questionnaire which asks “What is your race?” The survey respondent self-identifies his/her race from a list of single racial categories read to them. Responses not read to the respondent, but are recorded if necessary are: Don’t Know/Not sure, and Refused. “Native Hawaiian” is listed as a single-category. The data collected is based on a random sample and is subject to sampling variability. Sample population was drawn from residents over 18 years of age and is weighted to be representative of the age, sex and race distribution of the state.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Health (DOH). Diabetes Control Program (DCP)
For participants in the Diabetes Control Program, race is determined through single-category self-identification.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Health (DOH). Hawai‘i Health Survey (HHS)
The Hawai‘i Health Survey (HHS) replaced the Health Surveillance Program (HSP). The earlier Health Surveillance Program was a house-to-house in-person interview survey. The current Hawai‘i Health Survey is a random-digit dialing telephone interview survey.

The race variable is created from the parent’s ethnicities (Q37-Q40) as reported by the respondent for each household member. HHS Race-ethnicity is coded using the Office of Health Status Monitoring (OHSM) method:

OHSM codes eight possible choices for each individual (four for each parent), to one ethnicity in order to comply with prior Census rules coding race/ethnicity. Specifically, if Hawaiian is listed for the Mother or Father the person is coded to Hawaiian. Otherwise, the person is coded to the first ethnicity listed (other than Caucasian or unknown) for the Father. If the Father’s responses are Caucasian and/or unknown, the person’s ethnicity is coded to the first ethnicity listed (other than Caucasian or unknown) for the Mother. Lastly, if there are no other responses other than Caucasian or unknown the person is coded to Caucasian. Otherwise, the person is coded to do not know, refused, or missing.

The program’s methodology and procedures are designed to measure the prevalence of selected chronic medical conditions and social-economic indicators in the State of Hawai‘i for planning and research purposes. The data collected is based on a stratified random sample and is subject to sampling variability.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Health (DOH). Office of Health Status Monitoring (OHSM)
The vital statistics data presented by the Office of Health Status Monitoring are derived from the information registered on the Birth, Death, and Marriage Certificates. The birth certificates report the race of the mother and father, if known/reported. Race is designated through self-identification, multiple racial identifiers can be listed. The Hawai‘i State Department of Health determines a child’s race from the parents’ ethnic group following coding procedures:

  1. If both parents are of the same race, child’s race is parents’ race.
  2. If either parent is of unknown race, child’s race is that of the parent with the known race.
  3. If either parent is Hawaiian or Part-Hawaiian, child’s race is Part-Hawaiian.
  4. If either parent is Black, child’s race is Black (except Hawaiian and Part-Hawaiian).
  5. If parent’s races are White but not the same, (Caucasian, Puerto Rican, Portuguese, Cuban, or Mexican), the child’s race is that of the father’s race.
  6. If one parent is White and the other parent is non-White, child’s race is that of the non-White parent.
  7. If both parents are non-White, but not the same race, child’s race is that of the father.

Death certificates record information on the race of the deceased. Race is reported by family, next of kin, or health care professionals, multiple racial identifiers can be listed.

Marriage certificates record information on the race of both the bride and the groom. The race of each is designated through self-identification, multiple racial identifiers can be listed.

In the reporting of vital statistics data, Caucasian excludes Portuguese. There is a separate category for people of Portuguese ancestry, except for marriages, where they are combined with Caucasian.

In reported vital statistics data, the category “Hawaiian” also includes “Part-Hawaiian.”

It should be noted that only one ethnicity is coded from the actual certificates. If more than one ethnicity is listed on the certificate, the following rules apply:

  1. If Hawaiian is one of the multiple ethnicities listed, Part-Hawaiian is coded.
  2. If a non-Caucasian ethnicity is listed with a Caucasian ethnicity, the non-Caucasian ethnicity is coded.
  3. If there is more than one non-Caucasian ethnicity listed, the first one is coded.
  4. If there is more than one Caucasian ethnicity listed, the first is coded.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Health (DOH). Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS)
Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is a health surveillance project sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and executed through the various state health departments. PRAMS collects state-specific, population-based data on maternal attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. PRAMS is a mail-survey, the sample is drawn from a data set of birth certificates for recent births. Health and demographic data for selected respondents is extracted from the birth records file, including race data. This data will be compiled with the data collected from the survey forms. Since the race data is extracted from the birth certificates, race is defined by the birth certificate process.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Human Services (DHS) For those receiving assistance from the Department of Human Services:

  • Aid to the Aged, Blind, and Disabled (AABD)
  • Child Care Connection Hawai‘i (CCCH)
  • Employment and Training (E&T)
  • First-to-Work (FTW)
  • General Assistance (GA)
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
  • Temporary Assistance for Other Needy Families (TAONF)

race is designated through a self-identification single-category check list on an assistance application form. “Hawaiian” is listed as a single-category. There is no “Part-Hawaiian” category.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Human Services (DHS). Family and Adult Services Division
Reports on the incidents of child abuse and neglect in Hawai‘i are based on the department’s Central Registry on Child Abuse and Neglect (CA/N Registry) and the Child Protective Services System (CPSS). Information in the CPSS come from reports such as the “Report of Child Abuse/Neglect.” The reports record the race of the victim and caretaker(s) and are usually determined at the time of the investigation/assessment with the family. Race information is selected from a single-category check list of twenty selections. “Hawaiian” is listed as a single-category. In reported data, the category “Hawaiian” also includes “Part-Hawaiian.”


Hawai‘i State, Department of Human Services (DHS). Office of Youth Services (OYS)
The race of juvenile offenders committed by the Judiciary’s Family Court system is determined by self-identification. “Hawaiian/Part-Hawaiian” is listed as a single-category.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Labor and Industrial Relations (DLIR)
The employment/unemployment data reported in the Department’s “Labor Force Information for Affirmative Action Programs” report is derived from the US Bureau of the Census. Consequently, it utilizes the Bureau’s definition of “Hawaiian.” The Employment Service Office determines race through the use of a self-identification single-category check list. The race data of the Unemployment Insurance (UI) programs are provided by the unemployment insurance claims taker and are based on visual observation or by the claimant’s last name.


Hawai‘i State, Department of Public Safety (DPS)
The race of those admitted to the facilities under the control of the Department of Public Safety is indicated through self-identification as recorded on an intake assessment form. For those who report a multiple racial background, up to three racial identifiers are recorded for that individual. In the reporting of their data:
   Classification of persons into the ten following groups based on their self-reported ethnicity: Black, Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian or Part-Hawaiian, Japanese, Korean, Other, Samoan, and Not reported.
   Caucasians include persons who reported their ethnicity as Portuguese.
   “Other and Mixed” represents persons who reported two or more ethnicities (other than Hawaiian or Part-Hawaiian) or identified themselves with a single ethnic group not corresponding to any of the distinct groups.


Hawai‘i State, Department of the Attorney General. Crime Prevention Division
The crime data reported by the Crime Prevention Division is based upon the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program’s monthly offense and arrest reports. The reports are voluntarily submitted by the four county police departments. Information on race is recorded on the arrest reports. The arrest reports are filled out by the arresting officers. The arresting officers get the race information from the arrestee. There is no standardization for racial/ethnic identification among the police departments or within each police department.


Hawai‘i State, Department of the Attorney General. Crime Prevention Division
The “Survey of Crime and Justice in Hawaii” is a random mailed questionnaire survey based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The data on the race of a respondent is determined from answers to questionnaire item 47 which asks “What is your race or ethnic background?” The survey respondent self-identifies his/her race from a list of ten single racial categories: White, African American, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian/Part-Hawaiian, Korean, Samoan, and Other--Specify. “Hawaiian/Part-Hawaiian” is listed as a single-category. The data collected is based on a random sample and is subject to sampling variability.


Hawai‘i State, Office of Elections

Hawai‘i Revised Statutes
[Chapter 11] Elections, Generally
[§11-1] Definitions.

   “Hawaiian,” any descendant of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands which exercised sovereignty and subsisted in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778, and which peoples thereafter have continued to reside in Hawaii.

Starting with the 1978 elections, Hawai‘i conducted statewide elections for the trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA). The law at the time stated that only Hawaiians could vote for or hold a seat on the OHA Board of Trustees.

In 1996, Harold “Freddy” Rice filed a case against the State of Hawai‘i. In 2000, the case went before the United States Supreme Court, Rice v. Cayetano, 528 US 495. The court ruled that the state could not restrict eligibility to vote in elections for the Board of Trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to persons of Native Hawaiian descent.

Currently, the Office of Elections no longer has a need to use a definition of “Hawaiian” for election purposes. The Office of Elections does not collect data on the race of registered voters.


Hawai‘i State, Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA)

Hawai‘i Revised Statutes
[Chapter 10] Office of Hawaiian Affairs
[§10-2] Definitions.

   “Hawaiian” means any descendant of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands which exercised sovereignty and subsisted in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778, and which peoples thereafter have continued to reside in Hawaii;
   “native Hawaiian” means any descendant of not less than one-half part of the races inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands previous to 1778, as defined by the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, 1920, as amended; provided that the term identically refers to the descendants of such blood quantum of such aboriginal peoples which exercised sovereignty and subsisted in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778 and which peoples thereafter continued to reside in Hawaii;


Hawai‘i State, University of Hawai‘i (UH)
In the University of Hawai‘i System, there are several identifiers which address race or are confused for race. Students enrolled in the University of Hawai‘i system, are asked questions on 1) race, 2) ancestry, and 3) ethnicity.

Race is self-reported on the student’s admission application. “Race" is designated through a single-category self-identification check list. “HW” - Hawaiian/Part-Hawaiian is listed as a single category.

Since preference is given to applicants of Native Hawaiian “Ancestry” to the extent permitted by law, an additional question was added to the UH System Application form asking, “Were any of your ancestors Hawaiian?” Responses include, 1) yes, 2) no.

In addition, the application asks for “Ethnicity” which is often confused with “Race” since the terms are often interchanged. In this situation the term “Ethnicity” is used in the “Federal” context, 1) Hispanic or Latino, 2) not Hispanic or Latino.


United States, Bureau of the Census
The decennial censuses are conducted every ten years in all states and territories in the United States. In the past the US Census collected a wide range of demographic, social, and economic data on the population in the US. Starting with the 2010 US Census, the questionnaire was reduced down to ten (10) questions. The question on race was among the few questions to make the cut.

Hawaiian” as defined by the US Bureau of the Census: the data on race derives from answers the questionnaire.

   The concept of race as used by the Census Bureau reflects self-identification; it does not denote any clear-cut scientific definition of biological stock. The data for race represent self-identification by people according to the race which they most closely identify. Furthermore, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include both racial and national origin or socio-cultural groups.

In the Census 2000, respondents are allowed to identify one or more races to indicate their racial identity. There are 15 check box response categories and 3 write-in areas on the Census 2000 questionnaire, compared with 16 check box response categories and 2 write-in areas in 1990 Census. The three separate identifiers for the American Indian and Alaska Native populations (American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut) used earlier have been combined into one category - - American Indian or Alaska Native - - with instructions for respondents who check the box to print the name of their enrolled or principal tribe. The Asian and Pacific Islander category has been split into two categories Asian, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. There are six specified Asian and three detailed Pacific Islander categories shown on the Census 2000 questionnaires, as well as Other Asian and Other Pacific Islander which have write-in areas for respondents to provide other race responses. Finally, the category Some Other Race, which is intended to capture responses such as Mulatto, Creole, and Mestizo, also has a write-in area.

Other changes include terminology and formatting changes, such as adding “Native” to the Hawaiian response category. The term “Native Hawaiian” is now standard. In the layout of the Census 2000 questionnaire, the Asian response categories were alphabetized and grouped together, as were the Pacific Islander categories after the Native Hawaiian category.

Data for the 2000 Census and onward are reported in using different tabulation options. One option provides data on “race alone,” those who reported a single race category. The other option reports those who report a single category and those who reported multiple categories, “alone or in any combination.”

For Native Hawaiians, data is reported for “Native Hawaiian alone” and “Native Hawaiian alone or in any combination.” The responses are self-reported, if a person feels that “Native Hawaiian” best describes their identity they are free to select “Native Hawaiian.” The response should not be interpreted that the person is of one race, i.e. full-blooded native Hawaiian. The “Native Hawaiian alone or in any combination” reporting category includes all those who identified themselves as “Native Hawaiian” and those who identified themselves as “Native Hawaiian” and checked of one or more other races. Caution should be use in comparing those in the “alone or in any combination” categories since individuals can be counted multiple times. A person who identifies themselves as Native Hawaiian-Chinese-White, will be reported in the “Native Hawaiian alone or in any combination,” “Chinese alone or in any combination” and “White alone or in any combination” categories.


      1990 US Census Form

      1990 US Census Form


      2000 US Census Form

      2000 US Census Form


      2010 US Census Form

      2010 US Census Form



United States, Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (ACS)
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey conducted by the US Census Bureau, sent to approximately 250,000 addresses monthly. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, thus filling a vital data gap. The data collected is based on a random sample and is subject to sampling variability. Being a sample survey rather than a census, the level of detail on how the data can be reported is limited. Standards of confidentiality and statistical viability are closely monitored.

The same methodologies in collecting race data established in the 2000 decennial census is employed for the American Community Survey.








Terms & Definitions


Abortion rate = Abortions x 1000/Population of women 15 to 44 years of age (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Abortion ratio I = Abortions x 1000/Live births (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Abortion ratio II = Abortions x 1000/(Live births + Fetal deaths + Abortions)(Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Age-specific birth rate - The number of live births in a given year per 1,000 women of a specified age. Generally in terms of five-year age groups. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Age-specific death rate - The number of deaths occurring in a given year per 1,000 persons of a specified age and sex. Generally in terms of five-year age groups and given separately for male and female.(Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Aid to the Aged, Blind, and Disabled (AABD) - The Aid to the Aged, Blind, and Disabled (AABD) program provides cash benefits for food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials to adults who are elderly (65 years of age or older) and/or who meet the Social Security Administration (SSA) definition of disabled. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Human Services)

Assigned count - The number of inmates who were physically in custody in one of Hawai‘i’s correctional facilities; and who were under the jurisdiction of the Hawai‘i Department of Public Safety and located in another state’s facility; on furlough; on escape status; or in a medical facility. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Public Safety)

Birth defect - any structural, functional, or biochemical abnormality in development that originates before birth and is detectable at birth or shortly thereafter. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Child abuse or neglect - the acts or omissions of any person who, or legal entity which, is in any manner or degree related to the child, is residing with the child, or is otherwise responsible for the child’s care, that have resulted in the physical or psychological health or welfare of the child, who is under the age of eighteen, to be harmed, or to be subject to any reasonably foreseeable, substantial risk of being harmed. (Chapter 350: Child Abuse, §350-1)

Civilian labor force - Consists of persons classified as employed or unemployed in accordance with the employed/unemployed criteria, excluding those in the armed forces and 16 years of age or under. (US Bureau of the Census)

Compacts of Free Association (COFA) - Compacts of Free Association (COFA), includes the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. Under the Compacts of Free Association Act in 1985, the US agreed to provide economic assistance to compact nation citizens, allowing them to enter, reside and work in the US and participate in certain federal programs in exchange for certain military permissions in these associated states. Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 restricted access to federal public benefit programs to COFA migrants, states were required to fully absorb the costs of providing social service and health care benefits to COFA migrants. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Human Services)

Crude birth rate = Live births x 1000/Total population. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Crude death rate = Deaths x 1000/Total population. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Contract rent - The monthly rent agreed to or contracted for, regardless of any furnishings, utilities, fees, meals, or services that may be included. Housing units that are renter occupied without payment of cash are shown as “No cash rent”. The unit may be owned by friends or relatives who live elsewhere and who allow occupancy without charge. Rent-free houses or apartments may be provided to compensate caretakers, ministers, tenant farmers, or others. (US Bureau of the Census)

Crime index - The eight (8) Part I Offenses reported in the Uniform Crime Reporting Program to represent the status of crime in the United States: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (the later term is not used in Hawai‘i), forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. (Hawai‘i, Dept. Attorney General)

Crime rate - The number of crimes per 100,000 population (usually the resident population.) (Hawai‘i, Dept. Attorney General)

Clearance - An offense is “cleared” either by arrest or exceptional means. An offense is cleared by arrest when at least one person is arrested; charged with the commission of the offense; and turned over to the court for prosecution. An offense is cleared by exceptional means when the identity of the offender is known; there is enough evidence to support an arrest, charge, and turning over to the court for prosecution; the exact location of the offender is known; and, for reasons outside the control of law enforcement, the offender cannot be arrested, charged, and prosecuted. (Hawai‘i, Dept. Attorney General)

Divorce rate = Divorces x 1000/Total population.

Employed - All civilians 16 years old and over who were either (1) “at work”--those who did any work at all during the reference week as paid employees, worked in their own business or profession, worked on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers on a family farm or in a family business; or (2) were “with a job but not at work” --those who did not work during the reference week but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, or other personal reasons. Excluded from the employed are persons whose only activity consisted of work around the house or unpaid volunteer work for religious, charitable, and similar organizations; also excluded are persons on active duty in the United States Armed Forces. (US Bureau of the Census)

Employment and Training (E&T) - The Employment and Training (E&T) program is a statewide work program designed to assist able-bodied SNAP adults to become attached to the workforce. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Human Services)

Family - A family consists of a householder and one or more other persons living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All persons in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may comprise a group of unrelated persons or one person living alone. (US Bureau of the Census)

Family income - In compiling statistics on family income, the incomes of all members 15 years old and over in each family are summed and treated as a single amount. (US Bureau of the Census)

Fetal death rate = Fetal deaths x 1000/(Live births + Fetal deaths) (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Fetal death ratio = Fetal deaths x 1000/Live births (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

General Assistance (GA) - The General Assistance (GA) program provides cash benefits for food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials to adults ages 18 through 64, without minor dependents, who are temporarily disabled and who do not qualify for Social Security. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Human Services)

General fertility rate = Live births x 1000/Population of women 15 to 44 years of age (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

General pregnancy rate = (Live births + fetal deaths + abortions) x 1000/Population of women 15 to 44 years of age (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Government workers - includes persons who were employees of any local, State, or Federal governmental unit, regardless of the activity of the particular agency. (US Bureau of the Census)

Head count - The number of inmates on a specific date who were physically in custody in one of Hawai‘i’s correctional facilities. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Public Safety)

Household - A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements. (US Bureau of the Census)

Household income - Includes the income of the householder and all other persons 15 years old and over in the household, whether related to the householder or not. Because many households consist of only one person, average household income is usually less than average family income. (US Bureau of the Census)

Householder - One person in each household is designated as the householder. In most cases, this is the person, or one of the persons, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented and who is listed in column 1 of the census questionnaire. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years and older could be designated as the householder. (US Bureau of the Census)

Housing unit - A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home or trailer, a group of rooms or a single room occupied as separate living quarters or, if vacant, intended for occupancy as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which ave direct access from outside the building or through a common hall. (US Bureau of the Census)

Income in 1989 - Money income received in the calendar year 1989 by persons 15 years and over. “Total income” is the algebraic sum of the amounts reported separately for wage or salary income; net nonfarm self-employment income; net farm self-employment income; Social Security; public assistance or welfare income; retirement or disability income; and all other income. “Earnings” is defined as the algebraic sum of the wage or salary income and net income from farm and nonfarm self-employment. “Earnings” represent the amount of income received regularly before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, union dues, Medicare deductions, etc. (US Bureau of the Census)

Income of households - Includes the income of the householder and all other persons 15 years old and over in a household, whether related to the householder or not. Because many households consist of only one person, average household income is usually less than average family income. (US Bureau of the Census)

Income deficit - Represents the difference between the total income of families and unrelated individuals below the poverty level and their respective poverty thresholds. (US Bureau of the Census)

Inmate population - Inmates in Hawai‘i’s state correctional facilities are comprised of three major types of custody status: sentenced felons; sentenced jail; and pretrial. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Public Safety)

Kalawao County - Census Tract 319. In reports by the Hawai‘i State and Maui County governments, Kalaupapa Settlement is included as part of Maui County. The US Bureau of the Census classifies Kalaupapa Settlement as a county, Kalawao County, independent and separate from Maui County. In Census Bureau reports, Maui County data does not include Kalaupapa. Kalaupapa data is reported under Kalawao County, or is omitted due to the limited data. (US Bureau of the Census)

Labor force - All persons classified in the civilian labor force plus members of the US Armed Forces. (US Bureau of the Census)

Low birth weight mortality rate = Infant deaths of low birth weight (under 2500 grams) x 1000/Live births of low birth weight (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Marital status - Marital status classification of persons 15 years and over at the time of enumeration. (US Bureau of the Census)

Marriage rate = Marriages x 1000/Total population.

Maternal mortality rate = Maternal deaths x 100000/Live births (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Neonatal mortality rate = Infant deaths under 28 days x 1000/Live births (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Occupied housing unit - A housing unit is classified as occupied if it is the usual place of residence of the person or group of persons living in it at the time of enumeration, or if the occupants are only temporarily absent; that is, away on vacation. If all the persons staying in the unit at the time of the census have their usual place of residence elsewhere, the unit is classified as vacant. (US Bureau of the Census)

Out marriage - Marriage to a person of a different ethnic background. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Owner occupied housing unit - A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. (US Bureau of the Census)

Part I offenses - Offenses which make up the Crime Index: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson; plus the offense of manslaughter by negligence. (Hawai‘i, Dept. Attorney General)

Part II offenses - All criminal offenses not classified as Part I Offenses: other assault, curfew and loitering, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug abuse violations, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, fraud, gambling, liquor laws, offenses against the family and children, prostitution and commercialized vice, runaways, sex offenses, status offenses, suspicion, stolen property, vagrancy, vandalism, weapons offenses, etc. (Hawai‘i, Dept. Attorney General)

Per capita income - Per capita income is the mean income computed for every man, women, and child in a particular group. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population in that group (excluding patients or inmates in institutional quarters). (US Bureau of the Census)

Perinatal mortality rate = (Infant deaths under 1 week of age + Fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation) x 1000/(Live births + Fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation) (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Perinatal mortality ratio = (Infant deaths under 1 week of age + Fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation) x 1000/Live births (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Personal income - Income received by all individuals in an economy from all sources, made up of wages and salaries, other labor income, and the difference between transfer payments and personal contributions for social insurance. (US Bureau of the Census)

Postneonatal mortality rate = Infant deaths over 27 days x 1000/Live births (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Health)

Poverty guidelines - The poverty guidelines are the other version of the federal poverty measure. They are issued each year in the Federal Register by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services. The guidelines are a simplification of the poverty thresholds for use for administrative purposes for instance, determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs.

Poverty thresholds - Poverty statistics are based on definitions originally developed by the Social Security Administration. These include a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. Families or individuals with income below their appropriate thresholds are classified as below the poverty level. These thresholds are updated annually by the US Bureau of the Census to reflect changes in the Consumer price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U). The thresholds are used mainly for statistical purposes, for instance, preparing estimates of the number of Americans in poverty each year.

Key Differences Between Thresholds and Guidelines

 

Poverty Thresholds

Poverty Guidelines

Issuing Agency

Census Bureau

Department of Health and Human Services

Purpose/Use

Statistical - calculating the number of people in poverty

Administrative - determining financial eligibility for certain programs

Characteristics by Which They Vary

Detailed (48-cell) matrix of thresholds varies by family size, number of children, and, for 1- & 2-person units, whether or not elderly.  Weighted average thresholds vary by family size and, for 1- & 2-person units, whether or not elderly.  There is no geographic variation; the same figures are used for all 50 states and D.C.

Guidelines vary by family size.  In addition, there is one set of figures for the 48 contiguous states and D.C. one set for Alaska; and one set for Hawai‘i.

Timing of Annual Update

The Census Bureau issues preliminary poverty thresholds in January, and final poverty thresholds in September of the year after the year for which poverty is measured.  The poverty thresholds are adjusted to the price level of the year for which poverty is measured.  For example, the poverty thresholds for calendar year 2012 were issued in 2013 (preliminary in January, final in September), were used to measure poverty for calendar year 2012, and reflect the price level of calendar year 2012.

HHS issues poverty guidelines in late January of each year. Some programs make them effective on date of publication, others at a later date.  For example, the 2013 poverty guidelines were issued in January 2013, calculated from the calendar year 2011 thresholds issued in September 2012, updated to reflect the price level of calendar year 2012.  Therefore, the 2013 poverty guidelines are approximately equal to the poverty thresholds for 2012 (for most family sizes).

How Updated or Calculated

The 48-cell matrix is updated each year from the 1978 threshold matrix using the CPI-U. The preliminary weighted average thresholds are updated from the previous year’s final weighted average thresholds using the CPI-U. The final weighted average thresholds are calculated from the current year’s 48-cell matrix using family weighting figures from the Current Population Survey’s Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Guidelines are updated from the latest published (final) weighted average poverty thresholds using the CPI-U.  (Figures are rounded, and differences between adjacent-family-size figures are equalized.)

Rounding

Rounded to the nearest dollar

Rounded to various multiples of $10 - may end only in zero

Source: US Department of Health and Human Services. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)

Poverty status in 1989 - Poverty statistics presented in census publications are based on a definition originated by the Social Security Administration in 1964 and subsequently modified by Federal interagency committees in 1969 and 1980 and prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget in Directive 14 as the standard to be used by Federal agencies for statistical purposes. (US Bureau of the Census)

Pretrial inmates - Consist of pretrial felons, pretrial misdemeanants, and Federal detainees awaiting trial, pretrial release, or transfer. Their length of detention varies from one day to several months. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Public Safety)

Renter occupied housing unit - All occupied housing units which are not owner occupied, whether they are rented for cash rent or occupied without payment of cash rent, are classified as renter occupied. (US Bureau of the Census)

Self-employed workers - Includes persons who worked for profit or fees in their own unincorporated business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm. (US Bureau of the Census)

Sentenced felons - Inmates who serve prison terms exceeding one year. It also includes probation and parole violators since this group is generally detained with the sentenced felon population. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Public Safety)

Sentenced jail inmates - Include sentenced misdemeanants and sentenced felon probationers who serve jail terms of one year or less. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Public Safety)

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) - The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) [formerly known as Food Stamps] provides crucial food and nutritional support to qualifying low-income and needy households, and those making the transition from welfare to self-sufficiency. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Human Services)

Technical violator - Custody status of inmates who are or were held as a result of violating the terms/conditions of their parole or probation. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Public Safety)

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and Temporary Assistance to Other Needy Families (TAONF) - Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and Temporary Assistance to Other Needy Families (TAONF) are the time-limited welfare reform programs for adults with children designed to protect those who cannot work and to require those who are able to work to do so. (Hawai‘i, Dept. of Human Services)

Unemployed - All civilians 16 years and over are classified as unemployed if they (1) were neither “at work” nor “with a job but not at work” during the reference week, and (2) were looking for work during the last 4 weeks, and (3) were available to accept a job. Also included as unemployed are civilians who did not work at all during the reference week and were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off. (US Bureau of the Census)

Unemployment rate - A ratio of unemployed persons divided by the civilian labor force.

Unpaid family workers - Includes persons who worked 15 hours or more without pay in a business or on a farm operated by a relative. (US Bureau of the Census)

Vacant housing unit - A housing unit is vacant if no one is living in it at the time of enumeration, unless its occupants are only temporary absent. Units temporarily occupied at the time of enumeration entirely by persons who have a usual residence elsewhere are also classified as vacant. (US Bureau of the Census)

Years of potential life lost (YPLL) or Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL): YPLL/PYLL is an estimate of the average years a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely. It is one measure of the impact of premature mortality on a population. As a method, it is an alternative to death rates that gives more weight to deaths that occur among younger people.

Briefly, for the individual method, each person's PYLL is calculated by subtracting the person's age at death from the reference age, reference age is commonly set at age 75. If a person is older than the reference age when he or she dies, that person's PYLL is set to zero (there are no "negative" PYLLs). In effect, only those who die before the reference age are included in the calculation.




Definitions of Hawaiian Terms and Definitions