Terms & Definitions
Abortion rate = Abortions x 1000/Population of women 15 to 44 years of age (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Abortion ratio I = Abortions x 1000/Live births (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Abortion ratio II = Abortions x 1000/(Live births + Fetal deaths + Abortions)(Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Age-specific birth rate - The number of live births in a given year per 1,000 women of a specified age. Generally in terms of five-year age groups. (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Age-specific death rate - The number of deaths occurring in a given year per 1,000 persons of a specified age and sex. Generally in terms of five-year age groups and given separately for male and female.(Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Aid to the Aged, Blind, and Disabled (AABD) - The Aid to the Aged, Blind, and Disabled (AABD) program provides cash benefits for food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials to adults who are elderly (65 years of age or older) and/or who meet the Social Security Administration (SSA) definition of disabled. (Hawaii, Dept. of Human Services)
Assigned count - The number of inmates who were physically in custody in one of Hawaiis correctional facilities; and who were under the jurisdiction of the Hawaii Department of Public Safety and located in another states facility; on furlough; on escape status; or in a medical facility. (Hawaii, Dept. of Public Safety)
Birth defect - any structural, functional, or biochemical abnormality in development that originates before birth and is detectable at birth or shortly thereafter. (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Child abuse or neglect - the acts or omissions of any person who, or legal entity which, is in any manner or degree related to the child, is residing with the child, or is otherwise responsible for the childs care, that have resulted in the physical or psychological health or welfare of the child, who is under the age of eighteen, to be harmed, or to be subject to any reasonably foreseeable, substantial risk of being harmed. (Chapter 350: Child Abuse, §350-1)
Civilian labor force - Consists of persons classified as employed or unemployed in accordance with the employed/unemployed criteria, excluding those in the armed forces and 16 years of age or under. (US Bureau of the Census)
Compacts of Free Association (COFA) - Compacts of Free Association (COFA), includes the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. Under the Compacts of Free Association Act in 1985, the US agreed to provide economic assistance to compact nation citizens, allowing them to enter, reside and work in the US and participate in certain federal programs in exchange for certain military permissions in these associated states. Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 restricted access to federal public benefit programs to COFA migrants, states were required to fully absorb the costs of providing social service and health care benefits to COFA migrants. (Hawaii, Dept. of Human Services)
Crude birth rate = Live births x 1000/Total population. (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Crude death rate = Deaths x 1000/Total population. (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Contract rent - The monthly rent agreed to or contracted for, regardless of any furnishings, utilities, fees, meals, or services that may be included. Housing units that are renter occupied without payment of cash are shown as No cash rent. The unit may be owned by friends or relatives who live elsewhere and who allow occupancy without charge. Rent-free houses or apartments may be provided to compensate caretakers, ministers, tenant farmers, or others. (US Bureau of the Census)
Crime index - The eight (8) Part I Offenses reported in the Uniform Crime Reporting Program to represent the status of crime in the United States: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (the later term is not used in Hawaii), forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. (Hawaii, Dept. Attorney General)
Crime rate - The number of crimes per 100,000 population (usually the resident population.) (Hawaii, Dept. Attorney General)
Clearance - An offense is cleared either by arrest or exceptional means. An offense is cleared by arrest when at least one person is arrested; charged with the commission of the offense; and turned over to the court for prosecution. An offense is cleared by exceptional means when the identity of the offender is known; there is enough evidence to support an arrest, charge, and turning over to the court for prosecution; the exact location of the offender is known; and, for reasons outside the control of law enforcement, the offender cannot be arrested, charged, and prosecuted. (Hawaii, Dept. Attorney General)
Divorce rate = Divorces x 1000/Total population.
Employed - All civilians 16 years old and over who were either (1) at work--those who did any work at all during the reference week as paid employees, worked in their own business or profession, worked on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers on a family farm or in a family business; or (2) were with a job but not at work --those who did not work during the reference week but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, or other personal reasons. Excluded from the employed are persons whose only activity consisted of work around the house or unpaid volunteer work for religious, charitable, and similar organizations; also excluded are persons on active duty in the United States Armed Forces. (US Bureau of the Census)
Employment and Training (E&T) - The Employment and Training (E&T) program is a statewide work program designed to assist able-bodied SNAP adults to become attached to the workforce. (Hawaii, Dept. of Human Services)
Family - A family consists of a householder and one or more other persons living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All persons in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may comprise a group of unrelated persons or one person living alone. (US Bureau of the Census)
Family income - In compiling statistics on family income, the incomes of all members 15 years old and over in each family are summed and treated as a single amount. (US Bureau of the Census)
Fetal death rate = Fetal deaths x 1000/(Live births + Fetal deaths) (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Fetal death ratio = Fetal deaths x 1000/Live births (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
General Assistance (GA) - The General Assistance (GA) program provides cash benefits for food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials to adults ages 18 through 64, without minor dependents, who are temporarily disabled and who do not qualify for Social Security. (Hawaii, Dept. of Human Services)
General fertility rate = Live births x 1000/Population of women 15 to 44 years of age (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
General pregnancy rate = (Live births + fetal deaths + abortions) x 1000/Population of women 15 to 44 years of age (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Government workers - includes persons who were employees of any local, State, or Federal governmental unit, regardless of the activity of the particular agency. (US Bureau of the Census)
Hawaiian home lands (HHL), US Census Bureau
Hawaiian home lands (HHLs) are areas held in trust for Native Hawaiians by the state of Hawaii, pursuant to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920, as amended. The Census Bureau obtains the names and boundaries for HHLs from state officials. The names of the home lands are based on the traditional ahupua'a names of the Crown and government lands of the Kingdom of Hawaii from which the lands were designated or from the local name for an area. Being lands held in trust, HHLs are treated as equivalent to off-reservation trust land areas with the American Indian Trust Land/Hawaiian Home Land Indicator coded as T. Each HHL is assigned a national four-digit census code ranging from 5000 through 5499 based on the alphabetical sequence of each HHL name, a five-digit Federal Information Processing Series (FIPS) code in alphabetical order within the state of Hawaii, and an eight-digit National Standard (ANSI) code.
--- US Census Bureau, Geographic Areas Reference Manual
NOT to be confused with the Hawaii State, Department of Hawaiian Home Lands (DHHL) and their Hawaiian Homestead Land designations, the Hawaiian home lands (HHL) is a term and concept recognized by the US Census Bureau.
There are geographic statistical units at the subcounty level that are sufficiently populous to provide statistically significant data. The Bureau of the Census partners with local census contacts in each state with knowledge of local geographic conditions, local demographic and economic characteristics.
Since Department of Hawaiian Home Lands land holdings are being lands held in trust, these areas are treated as equivalent to off-reservation trust land areas. The bureau works with local authorities to identify which areas to designate and provide data. Not all DHHL homesteads are reported by the census bureau, since the goal is to report on areas that are sufficiently populous to provide statistically significant data. This would exclude DHHL pastoral designated areas, most of the agricultural areas, and some of the, undeveloped and underpopulated, residential areas.
Often the data is reported under the designation American Indian Area Alaska Native Area Hawaiian Home Land (AIANAHH). It is a Census Bureau term referring to both legal and statistical American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian areas. This does not reflect any political designation or recognition, only a staititical reporting category of the US Census Bureau.
Head count - The number of inmates on a specific date who were physically in custody in one of Hawaiis correctional facilities. (Hawaii, Dept. of Public Safety)
Household - A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements. (US Bureau of the Census)
Household income - Includes the income of the householder and all other persons 15 years old and over in the household, whether related to the householder or not. Because many households consist of only one person, average household income is usually less than average family income. (US Bureau of the Census)
Householder - One person in each household is designated as the householder. In most cases, this is the person, or one of the persons, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented and who is listed in column 1 of the census questionnaire. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years and older could be designated as the householder. (US Bureau of the Census)
Housing unit - A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home or trailer, a group of rooms or a single room occupied as separate living quarters or, if vacant, intended for occupancy as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which ave direct access from outside the building or through a common hall. (US Bureau of the Census)
Income in 1989 - Money income received in the calendar year 1989 by persons 15 years and over. Total income is the algebraic sum of the amounts reported separately for wage or salary income; net nonfarm self-employment income; net farm self-employment income; Social Security; public assistance or welfare income; retirement or disability income; and all other income. Earnings is defined as the algebraic sum of the wage or salary income and net income from farm and nonfarm self-employment. Earnings represent the amount of income received regularly before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, union dues, Medicare deductions, etc. (US Bureau of the Census)
Income of households - Includes the income of the householder and all other persons 15 years old and over in a household, whether related to the householder or not. Because many households consist of only one person, average household income is usually less than average family income. (US Bureau of the Census)
Income deficit - Represents the difference between the total income of families and unrelated individuals below the poverty level and their respective poverty thresholds. (US Bureau of the Census)
Inmate population - Inmates in Hawaiis state correctional facilities are comprised of three major types of custody status: sentenced felons; sentenced jail; and pretrial. (Hawaii, Dept. of Public Safety)
Kalawao County - Census Tract 319. In reports by the Hawaii State and Maui County governments, Kalaupapa Settlement is included as part of Maui County. The US Bureau of the Census classifies Kalaupapa Settlement as a county, Kalawao County, independent and separate from Maui County. In Census Bureau reports, Maui County data does not include Kalaupapa. Kalaupapa data is reported under Kalawao County, or is omitted due to the limited data. (US Bureau of the Census)
Labor force - All persons classified in the civilian labor force plus members of the US Armed Forces. (US Bureau of the Census)
Low birth weight mortality rate = Infant deaths of low birth weight (under 2500 grams) x 1000/Live births of low birth weight (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Marital status - Marital status classification of persons 15 years and over at the time of enumeration. (US Bureau of the Census)
Marriage rate = Marriages x 1000/Total population.
Maternal mortality rate = Maternal deaths x 100000/Live births (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Neonatal mortality rate = Infant deaths under 28 days x 1000/Live births (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Occupied housing unit - A housing unit is classified as occupied if it is the usual place of residence of the person or group of persons living in it at the time of enumeration, or if the occupants are only temporarily absent; that is, away on vacation. If all the persons staying in the unit at the time of the census have their usual place of residence elsewhere, the unit is classified as vacant. (US Bureau of the Census)
Out marriage - Marriage to a person of a different ethnic background. (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Owner occupied housing unit - A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. (US Bureau of the Census)
Part I offenses - Offenses which make up the Crime Index: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson; plus the offense of manslaughter by negligence. (Hawaii, Dept. Attorney General)
Part II offenses - All criminal offenses not classified as Part I Offenses: other assault, curfew and loitering, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug abuse violations, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, fraud, gambling, liquor laws, offenses against the family and children, prostitution and commercialized vice, runaways, sex offenses, status offenses, suspicion, stolen property, vagrancy, vandalism, weapons offenses, etc. (Hawaii, Dept. Attorney General)
Per capita income - Per capita income is the mean income computed for every man, women, and child in a particular group. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population in that group (excluding patients or inmates in institutional quarters). (US Bureau of the Census)
Perinatal mortality rate = (Infant deaths under 1 week of age + Fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation) x 1000/(Live births + Fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation) (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Perinatal mortality ratio = (Infant deaths under 1 week of age + Fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation) x 1000/Live births (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Personal income - Income received by all individuals in an economy from all sources, made up of wages and salaries, other labor income, and the difference between transfer payments and personal contributions for social insurance. (US Bureau of the Census)
Postneonatal mortality rate = Infant deaths over 27 days x 1000/Live births (Hawaii, Dept. of Health)
Poverty guidelines - The poverty guidelines are the other version of the federal poverty measure. They are issued each year in the Federal Register by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services. The guidelines are a simplification of the poverty thresholds for use for administrative purposes for instance, determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs.
Poverty thresholds - Poverty statistics are based on definitions originally developed by the Social Security Administration. These include a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. Families or individuals with income below their appropriate thresholds are classified as below the poverty level. These thresholds are updated annually by the US Bureau of the Census to reflect changes in the Consumer price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U). The thresholds are used mainly for statistical purposes, for instance, preparing estimates of the number of Americans in poverty each year.
Key Differences Between Thresholds and
Department of Health and Human Services
Statistical - calculating the number of people in poverty
Administrative - determining financial eligibility for certain programs
Characteristics by Which They Vary
(48-cell) matrix of thresholds varies by family size, number of children,
and, for 1- & 2-person units, whether or not elderly. Weighted
average thresholds vary by family size and, for 1- & 2-person units,
whether or not elderly. There is no geographic variation; the same
figures are used for all 50 states and D.C.
vary by family size. In addition, there is one set of figures for the
48 contiguous states and D.C. one set for Alaska; and one set
of Annual Update
The Census Bureau issues preliminary poverty thresholds in January, and final poverty thresholds in September of the year after the year for which poverty is measured. The poverty thresholds are adjusted to the price level of the year for which poverty is measured. For example, the poverty thresholds for calendar year 2012 were issued in 2013 (preliminary in January, final in September), were used to measure poverty for calendar year 2012, and reflect the price level of calendar year 2012.
issues poverty guidelines in late January of each year. Some programs make
them effective on date of publication, others at a later date. For
example, the 2013 poverty guidelines were issued in January 2013, calculated
from the calendar year 2011 thresholds issued in September 2012, updated to
reflect the price level of calendar year 2012. Therefore, the 2013
poverty guidelines are approximately equal to the poverty thresholds for 2012
(for most family sizes).
Updated or Calculated
48-cell matrix is updated each year from the 1978 threshold matrix
using the CPI-U. The preliminary weighted average
thresholds are updated from the previous years final weighted
average thresholds using the CPI-U. The final weighted
average thresholds are calculated from the current years 48-cell
matrix using family weighting figures from the Current Population Surveys
Annual Social and Economic Supplement.
are updated from the latest published (final) weighted average poverty thresholds using the CPI-U. (Figures are rounded, and differences between adjacent-family-size figures are equalized.)
to the nearest dollar
to various multiples of $10 - may end only in zero
Source: US Department of Health and Human Services. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)
Poverty status in 1989 - Poverty statistics presented in census publications are based on a definition originated by the Social Security Administration in 1964 and subsequently modified by Federal interagency committees in 1969 and 1980 and prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget in Directive 14 as the standard to be used by Federal agencies for statistical purposes. (US Bureau of the Census)
Pretrial inmates - Consist of pretrial felons, pretrial misdemeanants, and Federal detainees awaiting trial, pretrial release, or transfer. Their length of detention varies from one day to several months. (Hawaii, Dept. of Public Safety)
Renter occupied housing unit - All occupied housing units which are not owner occupied, whether they are rented for cash rent or occupied without payment of cash rent, are classified as renter occupied. (US Bureau of the Census)
Self-employed workers - Includes persons who worked for profit or fees in their own unincorporated business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm. (US Bureau of the Census)
Sentenced felons - Inmates who serve prison terms exceeding one year. It also includes probation and parole violators since this group is generally detained with the sentenced felon population. (Hawaii, Dept. of Public Safety)
Sentenced jail inmates - Include sentenced misdemeanants and sentenced felon probationers who serve jail terms of one year or less. (Hawaii, Dept. of Public Safety)
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) - The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) [formerly known as Food Stamps] provides crucial food and nutritional support to qualifying low-income and needy households, and those making the transition from welfare to self-sufficiency. (Hawaii, Dept. of Human Services)
Technical violator - Custody status of inmates who are or were held as a result of violating the terms/conditions of their parole or probation. (Hawaii, Dept. of Public Safety)
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and Temporary Assistance to Other Needy Families (TAONF) - Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and Temporary Assistance to Other Needy Families (TAONF) are the time-limited welfare reform programs for adults with children designed to protect those who cannot work and to require those who are able to work to do so. (Hawaii, Dept. of Human Services)
Unemployed - All civilians 16 years and over are classified as unemployed if they (1) were neither at work nor with a job but not at work during the reference week, and (2) were looking for work during the last 4 weeks, and (3) were available to accept a job. Also included as unemployed are civilians who did not work at all during the reference week and were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off. (US Bureau of the Census)
Unemployment rate - A ratio of unemployed persons divided by the civilian labor force.
Unpaid family workers - Includes persons who worked 15 hours or more without pay in a business or on a farm operated by a relative. (US Bureau of the Census)
Vacant housing unit - A housing unit is vacant if no one is living in it at the time of enumeration, unless its occupants are only temporary absent. Units temporarily occupied at the time of enumeration entirely by persons who have a usual residence elsewhere are also classified as vacant. (US Bureau of the Census)
Years of potential life lost (YPLL) or Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL): YPLL/PYLL is an estimate of the average years a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely. It is one measure of the impact of premature mortality on a population. As a method, it is an alternative to death rates that gives more weight to deaths that occur among younger people.
Briefly, for the individual method, each person's PYLL is calculated by subtracting the person's age at death from the reference age, reference age is commonly set at age 75. If a person is older than the reference age when he or she dies, that person's PYLL is set to zero (there are no "negative" PYLLs). In effect, only those who die before the reference age are included in the calculation.